INDIAN CINEMA:
 
SPIRITUAL LESSONS IN THE EARLY FILMS OF SATYAJIT RAY
 
 
In a 1948 article entitled, "What is Wrong with Indian Films," Ray criticized India's movement away from art and towards either musicals or heavy mysticism:
“The raw material of the cinema is life itself. It is incredible that a country which has inspired so much painting and music and poetry should fail to move the moviemaker. He has only to keep his eyes open, and his ears. Let him do so.”
 
For all of India's thousands of years of cultural development, one would think that its cinema would reflect something of a corresponding breath and depth.  Unfortunately, in India, quite the contrary is true, especially in the wake of the explosion of its entertainment industry, better known as "Bollywood." It is clear that the overwhelmingly sanguine temperament of its indigenous peoples has fed the fuel for its banal cinematic preferences, but is this really an excuse to go completely brain-dead? And how is this any different from the world's "developed" nations, which should know better but which also exercise a strong taste for the most excruciatingly superficial filmmaking? It's like a plague of spiritual dullness that has swept across the globe, leaving in its wake a spiritual body count far greater than any global pandemic. In fact, working not too far away from India, Sergei Paradjanov's spiritually charged, poetically surreal re-creations of history in The Color of Pomegranates, The Legend of Suram Fortress and Ashik-Kerib proved that great art could be made in ancient cultures - in this case, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan, respectively.
 
All the more reason that the wonderful early films of India's most notable auteur, the Bengali director Satyajit Ray, should be considered one of the highest achievements in world cinema. While not quite on the level of Tarkovsky or Bresson, Ray's cinema does contain enough poeticism and individuality to lift his work out of the mundane mud and earn it the moniker "transcendent". (With all due respect to Paul Schrader and his book "Transcendental Style in Film," Ray's work is certainly more transcendent than Ozu's, whose films are constantly being marred by his fixation on the family melodrama - as if voluntary family bondage was supposed to be the ultimate goal of every human's existence!) In fact, the great Japanese autuer Akira Kurosawa himself once remarked, “Not to have seen the cinema of Ray means existing in the world without seeing the sun or the moon.”
 
However, it was first an outsider, the French director Jean Renoir, who made the first great art film in India. Called The River, Renoir's film is based on the autobiographical novel by Rumer Godden, a British citizen who spent many decades of her life there. The title refers to the Bengal river, a tributary of the Ganges and is surprisingly poetic in the way it shows the mystical ties Indians have with these waters. Indeed, Renoir's objective from the outset was to make "a film about India without elephants and tiger hunts”. And in this he succeeded brilliantly. Despite the difficulties of shooting the film in the late-forties - Mahatma Gandhi had just been assassinated - the film's objective remains resolutely fixed on things of a higher nature - “a story based on the immemorial themes of childhood, love, and death,” as Renoir himself put it. Perhaps the most memorable moment of the entire film, though, happens towards the end as the great tree, which holds deep symbolic importance in the weaving together of the lives of the characters (and India itself), suddenly bursts into full blossom in one of the most purely transcendent sequences in  the history of cinema.
 
 
Satyajit Ray, who incidentally worked as an uncredited assistant to Mr. Renoir during the making of The River, would soon build on this scene in his groundbreaking first film Pather Pancheli (Song of the Road). Eventhough Ray's film was shot in B&W and in circumstances that were as impoverished as the world being portrayed in the film, the poetic juxtaposition of man to nature has hardly ever been done better. There is actually very little plot to speak of, reminding one more of the improvised naturalness of De Sica's Bicycle Thief than anything that had come before in Indian Cinema. The image and the sound are the real protagonists in this work of art. Once seen, who can ever forget those insects skitting along the surface of a pond, while the thrillingly precise accompaniment provided by the legendary Ravi Shankar finds just the right pulse of nature! Or Apu and Durga's walk through a field of tall, white, willowy reeds as they discover a train outside their village. Or Durga's ritual dance during the first monsoon rain. Or the terrifying night as the storm rips apart Durga's room as she lies dying. Or the long-absent father's approach to the crumbling house, the fallen Mango tree branch and the lone chewing cow. Each one of these images has infinitely more weight than the multitudinous factory of images supplied by Bollywood and most other cinemas of the world.
 
 
The reason these images impress themselves deeply on our consciousness (and often for many years hence) is that they have a greater power behind them. It is the power of the intuitive perception of the human spirit. Everything else is just the product of the brain, and so either images don't stick at all or, at best, have a fleeting presence. Ask most people about the imagery of a certain film and they'll respond by going on and on about the actors or actresses doing this thing or that. Or maybe a set piece, like the plane on the runway at the end of Casablanca. But for Ray, as with any striving human being, the imagery is synonymous with spirituality. Furthermore, upon seeing DeSica's The Bicycle Thief, Ray wrote in a 1951 essay, “The present blind worship of technique emphasises the poverty of genuine inspiration among our directors,” Ray continued. “For a popular medium, the best kind of inspiration should derive from life and have its roots in it. No amount of technical polish can make up for artificiality of theme and dishonesty of treatment. The filmmaker must turn to life, to reality. De Sica, and not [Cecil B.] DeMille, should be his ideal.” Mr. Ray also had the eye of a cinema poet and discovered an abundance of poetry in the reality of his mise-en-scene. His work has influenced an abundance of diverse filmmakers, including Otar Iosseliani (There Lived a Singing Blackbird), Andrei Tarkovsky (Ivan's Childhood), Sergei Paradjanov (Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors), and on and on. In fact, Ray's greatest sequences have few rivals in cinema history. These include the aforementioned scenes in Pather Pancheli as well as:
 
Aparajito (The Unvanquished):
1. The stunning opening montage in the "holy" city of Benares on the Ganges. During the morning call, there is a succession of beautiful shots (in amazing shadow and light compositions) of birds in flight throughout the city. It is a thrilling sequence of images, mysterious and life-affirming. His editing is absolutely transcendent, reminding one of Artavazd Peleshian's poetic interweaving of images. The scene ends on a glorious view of the Ganges, with the birds now resting in the foreground.
2. The unbelievable scene of Apu going to feed the monkeys, who have taken over a temple. The obvious parody of the scene is tempered by its complete naturalness.
 
Apu Sansur (World of Apu)
1. Apart from the much lauded scenes of marital bliss between Apu and Aparna, the greatest part of the film is unquestionably towards its end. Apu, weary from years of drifting (in a state of anger and confusion over the death of his wife during childbirth), journeys to a village, where his young son is being cared for. With each step Apu takes, we celebrate his return to nature. The concrete structures of his old way of life fall away and he begins a new path of rediscovery of the joys and simplicity of the natural world. Apu's years of disappointment, tragedy, suffering fall to the wayside as we have come full circle with him, back to the world of his childhood in Pather Pancheli. The texture and poetry of the elements are beautifully caught by the extraordinary lilting camera work. But even this is outshined by the transcendent glow on Apu's face, especially as he reaches the clearing and stands before the power of the light of the sun. In its stark simplicity, this scene represents one of the finest moments ever of cinematic transcendence: just a man before his God.
2. Earlier in the film there is a powerful scene, where the highly-educated Apu applies for a job writing labels for food jars. When he is taken to the workroom, the camera not only records the depravity of the working conditions, but, even more devastating, it captures the spiritually dead, expressionless gaze of one of the workers squelched by that environment.
 
"The Man of today...no longer knows what is spiritual. He has substituted the working of the intellect for it, and considers intellectual activity to be spiritual activity. This now gives him the final blow which brings about his downfall, for he is clinging to something that remains on this earth together with his body when he himself must enter the beyond!..
 
Nine-tenths of today's sciences must be accounted as false activity and useless striving in Creation. The sciences as they are now practised hinder the ascent of those who are concerned with them; they bring about stagnation and retrogression, but never that progress which leads to ascent. Man cannot unfold his wings in the so-called sciences of today; he can never achieve what he could achieve, for his wings have been pitifully clipped and destroyed. Only in simplicity of thought and action does greatness lie and power develop, for simplicity alone strives towards the Primordial Laws of Creation and harmonises with them.
 
Man, however, has bound and blocked himself up with his earth sciences!
 
Of what use is it when a man attempts to spend his life on earth in finding out when the creature fly came into existence and how long it is likely to remain on this earth, and many other similar questions that seem to be important for human knowledge. Just ask yourselves whom he really benefits with such knowledge! Only his vanity! Nobody else in the world! For this knowledge has nothing to do with ascent in any way whatever. Man derives no advantage from it, nor does it uplift him! Nobody gains anything from it!..
 
The man who enjoys each flower of the field, and who lifts his eyes to Heaven in gratitude for it, stands much higher before God than he who can scientifically analyse each flower without recognising the greatness of his Creator therein.
 
Man does not gain anything by being the fastest runner, a skilful boxer, a bold driver, or if he knows whether the horse appeared on earth before or after the fly! Such a volition only strives for something ridiculous, i. e., for vanity. It brings no blessing to humanity, no progress, and no gain for their existence in this Creation, but only encourages them to fritter away their time upon earth...
 
What man needs to investigate in the first place is only that which helps in his ascent and thus also serves to further Creation. In all his activities he should ask himself what advantage they will bring both to himself and to mankind. One goal must henceforth dominate every man - to recognise and also to fulfil the place he, as a human being, must occupy in Creation!..
 
Such is the simplicity that lies in the working of the Laws of Creation, as well as in the laws themselves, that no college education is required to recognise them properly! Every man has the ability to understand them if only he so wills. It is extremely easy to observe them. It is only made difficult by the conceited learnedness of men who love to coin big words for the most simple things, and who thus clumsily splash about in Creation, as if in clear water, assuming an air of importance and consequently dimming the original healthy clearness.
 
With all his false learning man is the only one among the creatures who neglects to fill his place in Creation by swinging in its rhythm and acting correctly...
 
He who does not embrace a high and luminous goal in his earthly activities cannot exist in the future. He must disintegrate in accordance with the Divine Laws which permeate Creation strengthened by the Light. Also spiritually he will be reduced to dust as a useless fruit that does not fulfil its purpose in this Creation.
 
This happening is quite simple and real, but its effects upon mankind as they still show themselves today will be formidable in the extreme!..
 
On earth mankind will also be forced from now onwards to adjust themselves completely to all the Primordial Laws of Creation." (from "Motion - A Law of Creation" by Abd-ru-shin, "In the Light of Truth: The Grail Message".)
 
Satyajit Ray grew up in a family of prominent intellectuals and went on to attend the University of Calcutta. So, when it came time for him to begin making films, it was only natural for him to gravitate to the theme of spirituality vs. intellectualism. In Pather Pancheli, as Apu experiences childhood in the natural, if impoverished surroundings of his village, Ray is at his most spiritual, child-like and freely poetic. There are long sequences where no words are exchanged. Scenes are held for longer-than-usual periods of time. The emphasis is on freely experiencing life at its most basic, life from a child's point of view. (Isn't it interesting that some of the most poetic films ever made - Red Balloon, Ivan's Childhood, The Silence, Fanny and Alexander - are filmed from a child's vantage point?) The knowledge of the outside world is only rarely imposed. This mostly has to do with the absent father, whose letters are the only real reminders of civilization. And, of course, when the father actually does come home at the end of the film, he is the one to take his family into that very civilization. Nevertheless, for the entirety of his film, Ray has intuited perfectly that the world of the child first and foremost belongs in nature.
 

"Until the spirit breaks through in the years of their maturity the children of earthmen have only a predominantly animistic intuitive perception. Naturally they are already set aglow inwardly by the spirit, i. e., they are not merely like noble animals in the highest state of development, but already very much more. Nevertheless the animistic prevails and is therefore decisive. It is absolutely imperative that this be borne in mind by every educator, and the basis of an education strictly adjusted in accordance with it, if the result is to become complete and without harmful effects on the child. The child must first receive full understanding in the great activity of all that is animistic, to which at this time it is still more open than to that which is spiritual. In this way its eyes will open in joy and purity to the beauties of Nature which it sees around it!

The streams, the mountains, the forests, the meadows and the flowers, as well as the animals, will then become familiar to every child, who will be securely anchored in this realm, which is to provide the field of activity during its sojourn on earth. It will then stand quite firmly and fully conscious in Nature, in the whole world of animistic activity, full of understanding and thus well equipped and quite ready to work with its spirit also, uplifting and furthering to an even greater extent all that surrounds it like a huge garden! Only thus can it become a true gardener in Creation!

On this basis and not otherwise must each maturing child stand when the spirit breaks through, healthy in body and soul, joyfully developed and prepared on that soil to which every child belongs. The brain must not be one-sidedly over-burdened with things that will never be needed during its life on earth, things which do cost great pains to acquire, consequently wasting its strength and weakening body and soul!"(from "The Child" by Abd-ru-shin, "In the Light of Truth: The Grail Message".)

At the beginning of Aparajito, the world is still fresh and vital eventhough Ray has now transported us to the city, albeit an ancient and mysterious one. Apu is still a child, and, like all children, he loves to explore. And so Ray is still also a child in a cinematic sense and his images are vitally poetic and essential - everything matters, everything is important because everything has become an experience for the spirit. But soon the tide begins to turn as Apu begins the natural process of thirsting for the knowledge of the world. His desire for an education is strong. Indeed, even at this young age, he has already set himself apart from many others in his caste because of this desire and his native abilities.
 
As Apu enters school, there is a marked shift away from poetic cinematic imagery towards a more stifled, "academic" approach. It is as if Ray is cinematically reflecting Apu's assimilation, i.e. the article cultivation of the frontal brain and the move away from the free experiencing of the natural world. The poignancy of this shift cannot even be articulated in words. It is a tragedy that has no other parallel in life and in cinema. There is no more sweep and desire to embrace the life of the spirit. All that is left is pedanticism and false ambition. And were it not for the ongoing interest in the life of this boy, who we have grown to care about deeply, there would be little to distinguish Ray's cinematic style from the mainstream. But that, after all, is the point! Apu, like Ray, is slowly joining the intellectual mainstream of contemporary life. Turning his back on the natural world of his childhood, his real life has ended and so has Ray's.
 
This is not to say, of course, that one should drop everything, find their own Walden Pond and pitch a tent! The world of today, which mankind has cultivated for millennia through a twisted, dark volition, would be merciless towards such an individual. (A street person once told us about the tremendous difficulty he was having reassimilating himself after being away from society for a long period of time. Just the process of reacquiring his identification and social security cards, so he could get a job washing cars, was a Kafka-esque bureaucratic nightmare. And this was a person who wanted to rejoin the human race!)
 
Apu wins a college scholarship and goes off to Calcutta to continue his studies, leaving his lonely mother to continue her life as a village retinue. When Apu returns to the country to visit her, he finds himself at odds with the gentle flow of life in this natural environment. Instead of taking this opportunity to rejuvenate his spirit, he becomes restless and bored and soon leaves. Eventually, the health of Apu's mother deteriorates, but, because of his exams, he arrives too late to be with her as she departs this life.
 
An overly-cultivated intellect causes a gulf between its own priorities and the spirit's needs. The intellect needs constant stimulation, which it has trouble getting in a quiet natural setting. It craves the constant, deadening movement of the city, the endless chatter with one's friends and the one-sidedness of a false education.
 
However, it must also be said that the intellect itself can and should be a fine and necessary tool, when used in harmony with the volition of the spirit. What becomes dangerous is the one-sided cultivation of the intellect by an educational establishment concerned with strictly earthly knowledge and nothing else. Today, more than ever, one must become aware of the disastrous consequences brought on by being cut off from the life of the spirit.

"Thus there is no field left for the spirit, no possibility for it to become active!

And things are not much better for the young man! He is weary and fatigued from over-burdening study in schools, his nerves overwrought! He provides only a diseased soil for the spirit breaking through, a brain distorted by and satiated with useless things. Thus the spirit cannot work as it should, and in turn cannot develop itself properly, but is stunted and completely smothered by the weight of the dross! There only remains an unquenchable yearning to give some inkling as to the presence of the immured and suppressed human spirit. Finally even this longing is lost in the mad whirl of earthly haste and greed which is first meant to act as a bridge over this spiritual vacuum, and which later on becomes a habit and a need!

This is the manner in which man now goes through his earthly life! And for the most part the faulty upbringing is to blame for it!" (from "The Child" by Abd-ru-shin, "In the Light of Truth: The Grail Message".)

"Everything that can be proved by the intellect is earthly theory, nothing else! And the scholarship of today is based on this, and presents itself to us in this way! But that has nothing to do with intelligence, i.e., with true knowledge! There are scholars who, according to the Primordial Laws of Creation, i.e., according to reality, count among the most narrow-minded of human spirits, even though they possess a great reputation on earth and are highly esteemed by men. In Creation itself they only play a ridiculous role!

Some of them, however, can become really dangerous to the human spirits of this earth, because they lead them along false and narrow ways on which the spirit is never able to unfold itself. They suppress them, seeking to impose upon them their own scholarship, which is fundamentally nothing but narrow-minded earthly intellectualism veiled with tinsel.
 
Awake and expand, you human spirits, make room for upward flight. You are not made for the purpose of remaining only in the gross material sphere; you are to make use of it, but not to consider it your home.
 
In these perverted days many a farm laborer is more spiritually awake and thus more valuable in Creation than a scholar who has entirely lost his pure intuitive perception. It has really a deep meaning when people talk of dry intellectual work or of dry scholarship. How often does the most simple person hit unswervingly on the right thing with an expression of the intuitive perception! The expression "dry" here means "without life", thus dead! There is no life in it! And the saying carries truth within it!" (from "Let There Be Light!" by Abd-ru-shin, "In the Light of Truth: The Grail Message".)
 
 
As the Apu Trilogy reaches its conclusion in The World of Apu, we find Apu disillusioned with what life has brought. He must end his studies and find employment, which he has little success with. His only hope is with the novel he is writing about his life. Through a set of strange twists, he finds himself married to a beautiful woman. Eventually they do fall in love, which is rapturously caught by Ray's camera. Apu's wife becomes pregnant, but later dies giving birth to a baby boy. After years of depression, Apu returns to the village, where his boy was being raised by his grandparents. Apu's reconciliation is first and foremost with God, with nature and the child-like wonderment of his forgotten spirit, and, only after all of that, comes his reconciliation with his son.
 
From a spiritual viewpoint, Apu's failure to develop himself spiritually has had a devastating impact on his adulthood. From the film's beginning it is clear that, after feeding his intellect for so long, Apu's spirit has withered into a state of dull indolence. He is given an amazing opportunity to regenerate himself spiritually through the love of a good woman. Unfortunately, this leads to more self-complacency, which releases the automatic effects of the Law of Reciprocal Action, resulting in the death of his beloved wife.
 
One can only shudder at the agony and estrangement that Apu experienced over the next few years. But at least his sluggish spirit was beginning to move. In his suffering, the tyranny of the intellect was slowly losing its grip and, in its place, seeds of an entirely different nature were beginning to take root in his being. Through a dramatic shift in his need to reconnect the severed threads with his young son, Apu in effect rediscovers the path back to the virtues of his own childhood, further awakening his spirit in the process. Apu is now on a purer and nobler path than he was before, which is why, at the end of the film, he can experience nature in a completely open and child-like state and finally face head-on the Power of the Light in the form of the sun.

"To fathom what childlike is, you must first be clear that the childlike is by no means bound up with the child itself. No doubt you yourselves know children who lack the true beautiful childlikeness! Thus there are children without childlikeness! A malicious child will never have a childlike effect, nor an unruly one who is really ill-bred!

This clearly shows that childlikeness and the child are two things independent in themselves.

That which is called childlike on earth is a branch of the effect from out of Purity! Purity in its higher, not merely earthly-human sense. The human being who lives in the ray of Divine Purity, who makes room for the ray of Purity within himself, has thereby also acquired childlikeness, whether it be still in childhood or already as an adult.

Childlikeness is the result of inner purity, or the sign that such a human being has submitted to Purity and serves It. All these are merely different modes of expression, but in reality they always amount to the same thing.

Thus only a child who is pure within itself, and an adult who cultivates purity within himself, can have a childlike effect. That is why he has a refreshing and vitalising effect, and also inspires confidence!

And wherever there is true purity, genuine love can also enter, for God's Love works in the ray of Purity. The ray of Purity is the path It treads. It could not possibly walk on any other.

The ray of Divine Love can never find its way to him who has not absorbed the ray of Purity!

Man, however, has deprived himself of childlikeness by turning away from the Light through his one-sided intellectual thinking, to which he has sacrificed everything that might have uplifted him. Thus he has firmly chained himself with a thousand fetters to this earth, that is, to the World of Gross Matter, which will hold him in its grip until he liberates himself from it. This, however, cannot come to him through earthly death, but only through spiritual awakening. (from "Childlikeness" by Abd-ru-shin, "In the Light of Truth: The Grail Message".)

 
Of course, the question which should arise within any serious seeker of Truth, is: Could Apu's path of horrible pain and suffering have been avoided? Well, we have already noted direct causes for some of the distortions which lead to his tribulations. But for more clarity we once again turn to the great Source of Truth and Wisdom, which we have already quoted from liberally in this article:

"But I say unto you: Only that man who stands aright in the Creation of his God, who recognises himself as a part of Creation and lives accordingly, only he is the true servant of God, no matter in what way he earns his necessary living on earth. As a part of Creation he will always strive to adjust himself to those laws that have a furthering effect therein. Thus he himself furthers Creation, and serves his God in the only right way. For through the right adjustment only happiness, joy and further progress can arise!

For this reason he must naturally become familiar with Creation!

And this is something you badly need - to recognise the Will of God resting in Creation and its constant self-acting effects therein! But so far you have never troubled yourselves to do just this in the correct manner. And yet it is the same for all of you, namely, that you stand and must move in the midst of a mighty mechanism, so to speak, without ever being able to alter or improve upon it.

Unless you stand and move in it aright, however, danger threatens you from all sides! You are sure to hit yourselves, and may fall and be torn to pieces! Exactly as in a gigantic machine-shop, with numerous driving belts constantly moving in all directions, confusing the eye and seriously threatening at every step all those not acquainted with it, but only of real service and use to the expert! It is no different for man in Creation!

At last learn to understand its mechanism aright, then you may and shall use it for your own happiness. But to do this you must first become an apprentice, as in everything! The greatest of all works, this Creation, is no exception; the same applies here as with all men's productions. Even an automobile gives pleasure only to the expert! It brings death, however, to him who does not know how to control it! (from "Servants of God" by Abd-ru-shin, "In the Light of Truth: The Grail Message".)

With it's honest, searching portrayal of the difficult life of an ordinary man, Satyajit Ray's Apu Trilogy represents one of the greatest means for identifying mankind's worst enemy (the over-cultivated intellect) and the way back to the life of the spirit. There are many other spiritual lessons that can be gleamed from Ray's other early films, especially the masterpiece Devi ("The Goddess"), where the downfall of womanhood and the dangers of idolatry and blind vanity are beautifully exemplified in the story of Doyamoyee, a young woman, whose life radically changes because of a grave mistake. Doyamoyee's father-in-law (a local zamindar) has a dream, in which it is revealed that she is the incarnation of the goddess Kali. Reluctantly, she permits herself to be placed on a pedestal for display. But when she then proceeds to cure a sick child, this "miraculous" event convinces everyone that Doyamoyee is really Kali - even Doyamoyee herself begins to believe it - and they begin to venerate her. When her husband, a university-trained intellectual, finally arrives home, he views the frenzied circus surrounding his wife with disbelief and contempt. His rational mind cannot accept the possibility of such a thing. His arguments, however, fall on deaf ears. Finally, Doyamoyee is given another opportunity to cure a deathly ill child, her beloved nephew, Khoka. This time, however, she fails to provide a cure and Khoka dies. As the film ends, Doyamyee has slipped into a state of utter madness.

Jalsaghar ("The Music Room") - perhaps Ray's greatest film - is a pearl of wisdom for the understanding of the devastating effects of violating the Spiritual Law of constant Equilibrium. The story concerns Huzur Biswambhar Roy, a zamindar, who is consumed by his passion for the great music of his culture.  His obsession, which involves the staging of lavish concerts at his mansion, reaches such feverishness that he neglects his family and his estate. After his wife and son die in an accident and he is financially ruined, Roy becomes embroiled in a game of one-upmanship with his nouveau-riche neighbor, which robs him of his final chance to turn his life around. The ending is reminiscent of Citizen Kane as we see a broken, regretful man surveying the haunted ruins of his life. Roy's final "ride of death" upon a white mare across the beach, his subsequent fall and the closing panning shot of the riderless mare now peacefully grazing, an empty ruin of a boat, Roy's white mantle lying on the beach, a long shot of the ocean and a final cut to a dispossessed chandelier from Roy's estate swinging in the darkness: all of this  poetically underscores the inevitability of Roy's self-imposed fate. Incredible filmmaking from an authentic genius of world cinema.

FURTHER READING:

"FROM INDIA TO THE TRUTH: Towards a New Knowledge for the Reformation of Indian Spirituality" by R. M. Duraisamy presents a collection of essays that address many of the spiritual questions that arise when considering the various spiritual teachings of India, e.g. karma, reincarnation and transmigration, the structure of Creation, pantheism and so on. This work also addresses many of the spiritual problems facing Indian communities all over the world, such as marriage, the family problem, traditional rites and religious rituals, the occurrence of miracles that are often used as the basis of all belief, asceticism and brahmacharyas, the spiritual task of women, and much more. Above all, this work forms but a simple bridge to a special Source of Knowledge, which latter contains the answer to every question and in this manner, "From India to the Truth" unfailingly leads the humble seeker, who wanders through the myriad paths of India's religions, to the incorruptible, eternal, Living Truth! "From India to the Truth" can be ordered here.

The following are sample chapters from "FROM INDIA TO THE TRUTH":

      "The Supreme Premise"
      "What is 'Spirit'?"
      "The Equal-Armed Cross"

www.indianseekers.com


 
Copyright (c) 2005 Gregory and Maria Pearse

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